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Aim: The study is aimed at investigating the antinutritive effects of aqueous root extract of Moringa oleifera on haematological indices following sub-chronic consumption of alcohol in Wistar rats.
Methods and Materials: Thirty (30) experimental rats weighing 100-120 g were randomly divided into 6 groups of 5 rats each. Group 1, the normal control group was given just rat feed and water, group 2, negative control was administered alcohol only (1.5 ml/kg body weight), rats in group 3, 4 and 5 received combined administration of alcohol 1.5 ml/kg body weight and 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight of aqueous root extract of Moringa oleifera respectively, group 6 rats were administered 250 mg/body weight of extract only. At the end of fourteen days (14) the experimental rats were then sacrificed, and blood was collected for haematological analysis.
Results: The result obtained shows a dose-dependent response in almost all the parameters, white blood cell (WBC) count increases significantly(P<0.05) with 600 mg/kg while dose 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/g shows no significant change. Red blood cells (RBC) decreases non-significantly (P<0.05) with increased amount of aqueous Moringa root extract. Likewise, there was also a dose-dependent decrease in the haematological count and more noticeable with 200 mg/kg dose. It was also observed that mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) increases in all the treatment groups with significant observed in 400 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg. The increase in alcohol can bring about suppression of the blood cells production, enhance if there is reduction in the red blood cells, it, therefore, implies that the will be reduction in the oxygen-carrying capacity of the red blood cells, that would be carried to the tissues as well as the level of carbon dioxide returned to the lungs. Also, the PCV is involved in the transport of oxygen and absorption of the nutrient. Therefore, increase in PCV, shows a better transportation and thus results in an increase in both primary and secondary polycythemias.
Conclusion: This research work shows that the plant extract contains some bioactive component or phytochemical constituents that are capable of ameliorating the toxicity effect of alcohol on animal models.