Rhesus E, Rhesus D and ABO Blood Groups Distribution among Indigenes of Ogoni Ethnic Group of Rivers State, Nigeria

Main Article Content

Serekara Gideon Christian
Evelyn Mgbeoma Eze
Anthony Chijioke Uzoanya Ezimah
Fiekumo Igbida Buseri


Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the percentage distribution of Rhesus E, Rhesus D and ABO blood groups among indigenes of Ogoni ethnic group of Rivers State, Nigeria.

Study Design:  This was a cross-sectional study carried out among indigenes of Ogoni whose origin of their first generation parents is Ogoni. A total of 101 subjects (49 females and 52 males), within the ages of 30–60 years were recruited for the study and they were apparently healthy.

Place and Duration of Study: Ogoniland is located in an area along the Niger Delta Eastern edge, and to the north-east of the Imo River and Port Harcourt city. Ogoniland covers about 1036 Sq Km and borders the Bay of Guinea. All participants were recruited in Bori. Bori is the traditional headquarter of Ogoni. Bori is located on latitude: 4040ʹ34.64ʺ N and longitude: 7021ʹ54.68ʺE. Laboratory analysis was carried out at the Post Graduate Laboratory of Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Port Harcourt, the capital of Rivers State, is located on latitude 4.750N and longitude 7.000E and lies along Bonny River in the Niger Delta. All subjects were recruited on the same day and their blood samples collected on 2nd October, 2019, and analysis performed on 3rd October, 2019.

Methodology: Determination of ABO and Rhesus D blood groups was done using Anti-A, Anti-B, and Anti-D IgD/IgM Blend Reagents, manufactured by Atlas Medicals, Cambridge-UK, Lot No[s] 19031214; 19030910; 19031921; Expiry Dates: 2021/03/16; 2021/03/10; 2021/03/20 and phenotyping of red cells was carried out manually using standard tube techniques as described by Judd, and Brecher. Determination of Rhesus E blood group was done using Anti-E Monoclonal, manufactured by Lorne Laboratories Ltd, UK. Lot No: 69189-A4; Expiry Date: 2021/03/04. Phenotyping of red cells was done using tube method as described by Lorne Laboratory Ltd.

Results: The result revealed percentage distribution of 22.77% for blood group A; 20.79% for blood group B; 52.47% for blood group O; 3.96% for blood group AB; 92.07% for Rhesus D positive blood group; and 25.74% for Rhesus E positive blood group amongst the Ogonis. The study revealed that ABO blood group percentage distribution among the Ogonis was in the order of O > A > B > AB (blood group O being the predominant ABO blood group followed by blood group A, blood group B, and blood group AB.

Conclusion: The study has revealed the presence of Rhesus E antigen in the Ogoni populace. It is therefore necessary to take into cognizance the fact that the presence of Rhesus E antigen may likely be the cause of some transfusion reactions which cannot be explained after a compatible ABO and Rhesus D cross match. We therefore recommend that routine typing of Rhesus E blood group be done on blood donors and recipients before blood transfusion.

Rhesus E, Rhesus D, ABO blood group, Ogoni-indigenes, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Article Details

How to Cite
Christian, S. G., Eze, E. M., Ezimah, A. C. U., & Buseri, F. I. (2020). Rhesus E, Rhesus D and ABO Blood Groups Distribution among Indigenes of Ogoni Ethnic Group of Rivers State, Nigeria. International Journal of Research and Reports in Hematology, 3(1), 1-7. Retrieved from http://journalijr2h.com/index.php/IJR2H/article/view/30116
Original Research Article


Reid ME, Lomas-Francis C, Olsson ML. The Blood Group Antigen Factsbook, 3rd Edition, Amsterdam: Academic Press (Elsevier); 2012.

Harmening DM, Forneris G. Tubby BJ. The ABO blood group system. In: Harmening D. M. Mordern Banking and Transfusion Practices, 6th edition, Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Company; 2012.

New Zealand Blood Service. Transfusion Medicine Handbook, 3rd Edition, Ackland, New Zealand Blood Service; 2016.

Reid ME, Calhoun L, Petz LO. Erythrocyte Antigen and Antibodies. In Lichtman MA, Beutler E, Kipps, TJ, Seligsohn U, Kaushansky K, Prchal JT. (Eds), Williams Haematology, 7th Edition, (pp 2119), New York: McGraw-Hill; 2006.

Fang C, Cohen HW, Billett HH. Race, ABO blood group, and venous thromboembolism risk: Not black and white. Transfusion. 2013;53:187-192.

Quinley ED. The ABO Blood Group System. In: Quinley, E. D. (Eds) Immunohematology Principles and Practice, 3rd Edition, Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2011;119-134.

Norfolk D. Handbook of Transfusion Medicine, 5th Edition, United Kingdom: TSO; 2013.

Christian SG, Eze EM, Briggs SK. Haemoglobin genotype, ABO and Rhesus blood group distribution in Briggs family of Abonnema, Rivers State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Medicine and Health. 2018; 13(2):1-8.

Christian SG, Eze EM, Essor JE. ABO, Rhesus blood groups and haemoglobin variants distribution among individuals with Helicobacter pylori in Igwuruta-Ali, Rivers State. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research. 2018;28(10):1-8.

Okoroiwu IL, Obeagu EI, Christian SG, Elemchukwu Q, Ochei KC. Determination of the haemoglobin, genotype and ABO blood group pattern of some students of Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria. International Journal of Current Research and Academic Review. 2015;3(1):20-27.

Daniels GL, Anstee DJ, Cartron JP, Dahr W, Henry S, Issitt PD, Jørgensen J, Judd WJ, Kornstad L, Levene C, Lomas-Francis C, Lubenko A, Mallory D, Moulds JM, Moulds JJ, Okubo Y, Overbeeke M, Reid, ME, Rouger P, Seidl S, Sistonen P, Wendel S, Zelinski T. Blood group terminology. ISBT working party on terminology for red cell surface antigens. Vox Sanguinis. 1995;69:265-279.

Issitt PD, Anstee DJ. Applied Blood Group Serology, 4th Edition, Durham: Montgomery Scientific; 1998.

Reid ME, Lomas-Francis C. Blood Group Antigen Fact Book, 2nd Edition, San Francisco: Academic; 2003.

Cartron JP. RH blood group system and molecular basis of Rh-deficiency. Bailliere’s Best Practice and Research in Clinical Haematology. 1999;12:655– 689.

Anstee DJ, Tanner MJA. Biochemical aspects of the blood group Rh (rhesus) antigens. Bailliere’s Clinical Haematology. 1993;6:401–422.

Oyinlade OA, Vincent, JM. The Ogoni of Nigeria. Anthropology Faculty Publications. 113.
[Accessed on: February 5, 2020]

ENCYCLOpedia.com. Ogoni.
Available:https://www.encyclopedia.com [Accessed: October 10, 2019]

Cheesbrough M. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries, 2nd Edition, Part 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2010.

Judd JW. Methods in Immunohematology, 2nd Edition, Durham, USA: Montogomery Scientific Publications; 1994.

Brecher M. Technical Manual, 14th Edtion, Bethesda, USA: American Association of Blood Banks; 2002.

Lorne Laboratories. Monoclonal blood grouping reagents: Anti-C, Anti-E, Anti-c, and Anti-e monoclonal, Document Reference Number: CEPI690/691/692/693. United Kingdom: Lorne Laboratories Ltd; 2018.

Kahar MA. Patel RD. Phenotype frequencies of blood group system (Rh, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, MNS, P, Lewis, and Lutheran) in blood donors of South Gujarat, India. Asian Journal of Transfusion Science. 2014;8:51-55.