International Journal of Research and Reports in Hematology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International&nbsp;Journal of Research and Reports in Hematology</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish&nbsp;high-quality&nbsp;papers (<a href="/index.php/IJR2H/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of&nbsp;‘Hematology’. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> International Journal of Research and Reports in Hematology en-US International Journal of Research and Reports in Hematology Trend of Donor Rejection Due to the Incidence of Hepatitis B and C Viruses, Human Immunodefiency Virus (HIV 1&2) and Treponema pallidum in Ghana: A Retrospective Study <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> This research sought to determine the annual trend of donor rejection due to the incidence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV 1&amp;2) and <em>Treponema pallidum</em> (syphilis) among blood donors in Ghana.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> This retrospective study was conducted on all donors who presented for allogeneic blood donation from January 2014 to December 2017 at Ashanti Bekwai Municipal Hospital.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Laboratory records containing donors’ information from January 2014 to December 2017 were reviewed. The annual incidence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV 1&amp;2) and <em>Treponema pallidum</em> among the donors were statistically computed using Graphpad® Prism. The difference between the reactive and nonreactive groups was computed using two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni’s post hoc test.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In general, 18.1% (347/1922) tested positive for at least one of the infections, 5.98% (115/1922), 2.2% (42/1922), 2.3% (44/1922), 7.6% (146/1922) tested positive for HBsAg, HCV, HIV 1&amp;2 and <em>Treponema pallidum</em> respectively. Specifically, from 2014-2017, the incidence of the individual diseases among the blood donors were as follows: HBsAg; 6.2, 7.5, 5.7, and 4.0%, HCV; 0.9, 2.4, 2.8 and 2.7%, HIV; 2.4, 1.7, 2.8 and 2.5%, and <em>Treponema pallidum</em>; 6.7, 9.5, 6.3 and 7.7% respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The annual incidence of HBsAg, HCV, <em>Treponema pallidum</em> and HIV 1&amp;2 among blood donors at Ashanti Bekwai Municipal hospital, Ghana is high. This warrant the need for healthcare authorities to consider implementing policies that will make it possible for the blood bank services to be able to reveal the cause of donor rejection to the deferred donor so that immediate interventions can be made to salvage them from the long-term effect of the infections and to also prevent them from communicating the infections to others.</p> Maxwell Awuah Suleiman Ahmed Fred Jonathan Edzeamey Osei Kwame Wiredu Bernard Berko Sampong Richmond Agyapong Emmanuel Boakye Asare ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-25 2019-04-25 1 10 Toxicity Induced Haematological Alterations after Acute and Chronic Administration of Tartrazine (E102) in Albino Rats <p><strong>Aim: </strong>To evaluate the haematological alterations induced by tartrazine after acute and chronic administration in albino rats.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>The design involved acute and chronic study. The acute study investigated the intraperitoneal and oral route of administration while the chronic study used the oral route only. The rats used weighed 0.15 kg approximately. In the acute study, 48 rats (24 female and 24 male) were used for intraperitoneal treatment and were randomly selected and placed into 6 groups treated with 0.0 g/kg, 1.67 g/kg, 3.33 g/kg, 5.0 g/kg, 6.67 g/kg and, 8.33 g/kg of tartrazine. In orally treated rats, 48 rats (24 female and 24 male) were also used and were treated with 0.0 g/kg, 2.5 g/kg, 5.0 g/kg, 10.0 g/kg, 15.0 g/kg and 20.0 g/kg of tartrazine. In the chronic study, the experiment was divided into phase 1, 2 and, 3 which lasted for 30, 60, and 90 days respectively. In each phase, 80 rats were used and were divided into treatment and control groups. The treated groups were given 7.5 mg/kg of tartrazine orally on a daily basis over the stipulated periods while the control groups were not treated with tartrazine.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>The study was carried out in the Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria within a period of 12 months (December 2017 – December 2018).</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>At the end of the acute and chronic study, 5 mls of whole blood specimens were collected by means of cardiac puncture into K<sub>3</sub>EDTA bottles. The collected specimens were analyzed immediately using Mindray 5300 haematology autoanalyzer. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism version 5.03 (San Diego, California, USA).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>In acute toxicity study, the administration of high doses far above the ADI of tartrazine induced decreased RBCs, HB, HCT, WBCs, Eosinophil, and Neutrophil counts as well as an increased PLTs, Lymphocyte, and Monocyte counts. However, in the chronic treatment, WBCs were increased after 60 and 90 days of chronic treatment at ADI doses while Eosinophil and Basophil counts showed significant decrease after 30 and 60 days of treatment. Also, an increase in Lymphocyte was observed after 30, 60, and 90 days. In addition, Neutrophil and Monocyte counts showed significantly lower levels after 30, 60, and 90 days of chronic treatment with tartrazine. HCT, HB, and PLTs showed no significant difference after 30, 60, and 90 days of chronic treatment at ADI doses.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The results obtained indicate that high doses of tartrazine above the recommended ADI induced severe haematological alterations. However, the chronic study did not affect HCT, HB, and PLTs but mild derangements/alterations were in WBCs, lymphocyte, Neutrophil, Eosinophil, and Basophil counts after 60 and 90 days of treatment.</p> Ibioku Elekima Serekara Gideon Christian ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-03 2019-06-03 1 17 Investigation of Haemolytic Properties of Ethanolic Leaf and Seed Extracts of Telfairia occidentalis in Wistar Rats <p><strong>Aim: </strong>Investigation of haemolytic properties of ethanolic leaf and seed extracts of <em>Telfairia occidentalis </em>in Wistar rats is the aim of this study.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Fresh plants of <em>T. occidentalis</em> and a seed pod were purchased from Oja-Oba Market in Ibadan, Nigeria and were identified by a botanist. The leaves were carefully removed from the stem and washed in running water to remove contaminants. The seeds were removed from the pod and were split opened. The white seed and the leaves were air dried at room temperature in an open laboratory space until they were completely dried and were milled into powder. The extraction was done using soxhlet apparatus and ethanol as the solvent<em>. </em>Fifteen (15) healthy adult male Wistar rats with body weight between 150 and 163 g were used for this study. They were randomly divided into three groups of five rats each. Animals in group 1 were administered saline solution; those in group 2 were administered <em>T. occidentalis</em> leaf extract while those in group 3 were administered <em>T. occidentalis</em> seed extract. The administration was done 12 hourly for twenty-eight days at 100 mg/kg body weight via oral route since the plant is consumed orally. At the end of the treatment, animals were fasted overnight and anaesthetized using diethyl ether. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture into heparinized bottles. Haematological parameters were determined using standard methods.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A&nbsp; significant increase was observed in the PCV, Hb, RBC, MCV, WBC, lymphocyte of control animals when compared with those treated with leaf and seed extract of <em>T. occidentalis</em> respectively at p&lt;0.05. However, treatment had no significant difference in the platelet of animals.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>It is obvious from this study that consumption of the leaf and seed of <em>T. occidentalis </em>enhanced various heamatological parameters and would therefore improve the physiological and nutritional status of its consumers. The study has further justified the ethnobotanical use of both leaf and seed of <em>T. occidentalis </em>as a blood tonic and antianemic. Instead of focusing on the leaves for its haemolytic properties, the seeds can be used as well.</p> A. I. Airaodion E. O. Airaodion E. O. Ogbuagu U. Ogbuagu J. A. Ekenjoku O. A. Adekale ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-23 2019-08-23 1 8