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Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the percentage distribution of Rhesus E, Rhesus D and ABO blood groups among indigenes of Ogoni ethnic group of Rivers State, Nigeria.
Study Design: This was a cross-sectional study carried out among indigenes of Ogoni whose origin of their first generation parents is Ogoni. A total of 101 subjects (49 females and 52 males), within the ages of 30–60 years were recruited for the study and they were apparently healthy.
Place and Duration of Study: Ogoniland is located in an area along the Niger Delta Eastern edge, and to the north-east of the Imo River and Port Harcourt city. Ogoniland covers about 1036 Sq Km and borders the Bay of Guinea. All participants were recruited in Bori. Bori is the traditional headquarter of Ogoni. Bori is located on latitude: 4040ʹ34.64ʺ N and longitude: 7021ʹ54.68ʺE. Laboratory analysis was carried out at the Post Graduate Laboratory of Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Port Harcourt, the capital of Rivers State, is located on latitude 4.750N and longitude 7.000E and lies along Bonny River in the Niger Delta. All subjects were recruited on the same day and their blood samples collected on 2nd October, 2019, and analysis performed on 3rd October, 2019.
Methodology: Determination of ABO and Rhesus D blood groups was done using Anti-A, Anti-B, and Anti-D IgD/IgM Blend Reagents, manufactured by Atlas Medicals, Cambridge-UK, Lot No[s] 19031214; 19030910; 19031921; Expiry Dates: 2021/03/16; 2021/03/10; 2021/03/20 and phenotyping of red cells was carried out manually using standard tube techniques as described by Judd, and Brecher. Determination of Rhesus E blood group was done using Anti-E Monoclonal, manufactured by Lorne Laboratories Ltd, UK. Lot No: 69189-A4; Expiry Date: 2021/03/04. Phenotyping of red cells was done using tube method as described by Lorne Laboratory Ltd.
Results: The result revealed percentage distribution of 22.77% for blood group A; 20.79% for blood group B; 52.47% for blood group O; 3.96% for blood group AB; 92.07% for Rhesus D positive blood group; and 25.74% for Rhesus E positive blood group amongst the Ogonis. The study revealed that ABO blood group percentage distribution among the Ogonis was in the order of O > A > B > AB (blood group O being the predominant ABO blood group followed by blood group A, blood group B, and blood group AB.
Conclusion: The study has revealed the presence of Rhesus E antigen in the Ogoni populace. It is therefore necessary to take into cognizance the fact that the presence of Rhesus E antigen may likely be the cause of some transfusion reactions which cannot be explained after a compatible ABO and Rhesus D cross match. We therefore recommend that routine typing of Rhesus E blood group be done on blood donors and recipients before blood transfusion.
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