Main Article Content
Aim: This study is aimed at determining the effect of Xylopia aethiopica fruit on weight gain and blood sugar level of Wistar rats.
Methodology: The fruits of Xylopia aethiopica were obtained from new market in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria and were authenticated. They were air-dried and extracted using Soxhlet apparatus and ethanol as solvent. The median lethal dose (LD50) of the extract was determined using standard method. Thirty Wistar rats were used for this study. They were acclimatized for seven days, weighed and divided into five groups of six rats each. Animals in group A were administered 129.62 mg/kg body weight (10% of LD50) of X. aethiopica fruit extract, those in group B were administered 259.23 mg/kg body weight (20% of LD50) of X. aethiopica fruit extract, those in group C were administered 388.85 mg/kg body weight (30% of LD50) of X. aethiopica fruit extract, those in group D were administered 518.46 mg/kg body weight (40% of LD50) of X. aethiopica fruit extract, while those in group E (control) received normal feeds and water only. The administration was done once daily for 28 days via oral route. At the end of 28 days treatment, animals were weighed and weights recorded, and were sacrificed under ether anaesthesia after an overnight fast. Organs were harvested and weighed. Blood glucose level was determined using glucometer.
Results: The physical signs of toxicity observed in the animals included excitation, paw licking, increased respiratory rate, decreased motor activity, gasping and coma which was followed by death. The extract was observed to reduce weight gained by animals when compared with those in the control group at P<0.05. Similarly, a significant reduction was observed in the blood sugar level of animals administered extract of X. aethiopica fruit when compared with those in the control group. This reduction was dose-dependent.
Conclusion: The result of this study revealed that X. aethiopica fruit possesses hypoglycemic potential but highly toxic at high dosage.
Santaguida PL, Balion C, Hunt D. Diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose. Evid Rep Technol Assess. 2008;12:1–11.
Bahadoran Z, Golzarand M, Mirmiran P, Saadati N, Azizi F. The association of dietary phytochemical index and cardio-metabolic risk factors in adults: Tehran lipid and glucose study. Journal of Human Nutrition and Diet. 2013; 3:5-11.
Raji Y, Udoh US, Mewoyeka OO, Ononye FC, Bolarinwa AF. Implication of reproductive endocrine malfunction in male antifertility efficacy of Azadirachta indica extract in rats. Afr. J. Med. Med. Sci. 2003;32:159-165.
Woode E, Chrissie S, Abaidoo CS, Abass A. An evaluation of the effect of ethanolic fruit extracts of Xylopia aethiopica on haematological and biochemical parameters in male rats. Derpharmacia Sinica. 2011;2(2):39-45.
Nnodim J, Emejelu A, Amaechi A, Nwosu-Njoku EC. Influence of Xylopia aethiopica fruits on some heamatological and biochemical profile. Al Ameen J Med Sci. 2011;4(2):191-196.
Nnodim JK, Nwanjo HU, Okolie NJ, Opara AU, Nwosu DC, OKoroiwu I, Dike J, Okorie H, Nwadike CN, Uduji HI. Effects of Xylopia aethiopica Fruits on reproductive hormonal level in rats. Global Journal of Medicinal Plant Research, 2013;1(1):29-31.
Oloyede AM, Aduramigbe-Modupe AO. Antimicrobial activities of crude ethanolic extract of Xylopia aethiopica. International Journal of Current Research. 2011;3(10):005-007.
Airaodion AI, Ogbuagu EO, Ewa O, Ogbuagu U, Awosanya OO, Adekale OA. Ameliorative efficacy of phytochemical content of Corchorus olitorius leaves against acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats. Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology. 2019;2(2):1-10.
Airaodion AI, Ogbuagu U, Ogbuagu EO, Airaodion EO, Agunbiade AP, Oloruntoba AP, Mokelu IP, Ekeh SC. Investigation of aqueous extract of Zingiber officinale root potential in the prevention of peptic ulcer in albino rats. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science. 2019;4(2):64-67.
Okeke EC, Eneobong HN, Uzuegbunam AO, Ozioko AO, Kuhnlein H. Igbo traditional food system: Documentation, uses and Research needs. Parkistan Journal of Nutrition. 2008;7(2): 365-376.
Asekun OT, Adeniyi BA. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of the fruit essential oil of Xylopia aethiopica from Nigeria. Fitoterapia, 2004;75:368-370.
Somova LI, Shode FO, Moodley K, Govender Y. Antihypertensive and Diuretic Effect of Xylopia aethiopica fruit. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2001;77(2-3):165-174.
Woode E, Ameyaw EO, Boakye-Gyasi E, Abotsi WK. Analgesic effects of an ethanol extract of the fruits of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich (Annonaceae) and the major constituent, xylopic acid in murine models. Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences. 2012;4(4):291-301.
Soh D, Nkwengoua E, Ngantchou I, Nyasse B, Denier C, Hannaert V. Xylopioxyde and other bioactive kaurenediterpenes from Xylopia aethiopica Dunal (Annonaceae); 2013.
Ogbuagu EO, Ogbuagu U, Unekwe PC, Nweke IN, Airaodion AI. Qualitative determination of the phytochemical composition of ethanolic extract of Xylopia aethiopica fruit. Asian Journal of Medical Principles and Clinical Practice. 2020; 3(4):45-52.
Airaodion AI, Ekenjoku JA, Ogbuagu EO, Okoroukwu VN, Ogbuagu U. Carica papaya leaves might cause miscarriage. Asian Research Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2019;2(2):1-9.
Chike CPR, Adienbo OM.The effect of aqueous extract of Xylopia aethiopica on the some biochemical profile of male guinea pigs. Afri J. Applied Zoology Environ Biol. 2010;12(1):72–75.
Eze KN. Antifertility effects of ethanolic extract of Xylopia aethiopica on male reproductive organ of Wistar rats. American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences. 2012;2:12-15.
McCue P, Shetty K. Inhibitory effects of rosmarinic acid extracts on porcine pancreatic amylase in vitro. Asia pacific J. Clin.Nutr. 2004;13(1):101-106.
Ogbonnia S, Adekunle AA, Bosa MK, Enwuru VN. Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicity of Alstonia congensis Engler (Apocynaceae) bark and Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich (Annonaceae) fruits mixtures used in the treatment of diabetes. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2008;7(6):701-705.
Airaodion AI, Ene AC, Ogbuagu EO, Okoroukwu VN, Ekenjoku JA, Ogbuagu U. Biochemical changes associated with consumption (by rats) of “garri” processed by traditional and instant mechanical methods. Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology. 2019; 2(4):1-11.
Abass A. Effect of ethanolic fruit extract of Xylopia aethiopica (dunal) a. Rich (annonaceae) and Xylopic acid on reproductive function in male rats. A thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of doctor of philosophy in the department of pharmacology, faculty of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of science & technology. Kumasi. 2012;1-136.
Obodo BN, Iweka FK, Obhakhan JO, Oyadonghan GP, Agbo GE. The effect of Xylopia aethiopica leaves on body weight and growth performance. International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research. 2013;2(2):14 –19.
Yusuf AA, Lawal B, Yusuf MA, Omonije YO, Adejoke AO, Raji FH, Wenawo DL. Free radical scavenging, antimicrobial activities and effect of sub-acute exposure to Nigerian Xylopia aethiopica seed extract on liver and kidney functional indices of albino rat. Iranian Journal of Toxicology. 2018;12(3):51-58.
Abaidoo CS, Woode E, Alhassan A. An evaluation of the effect of ethanolic fruit extracts of Xylopia aethiopica on haematological and biochemical parameters in male rats. Pelagia Research Library. 2011;2(2):39-45.
Nwanjo HU, Nwokoro EA. Antidiabetic and biochemical effects of aqueous extract of Vernonia amygdalina leaf in normoglycaemic and diabetic rats. J Innov. Life Sci. 2004;7:6-10.
Airaodion AI, Ogbuagu EO, Ekenjoku JA, Okoroukwu VN, Ogbuagu U. Bigi soft drinks might induce hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in Wistar rats. International Journal of Research and Reports in Hematology. 2019;2(4):1-10.
Murray RK, Granner DK, Mayes PO, Rodwell VW. Harper's Illustrated Biochemistry. 25th Edn., Appleton and Lange Medical Publication/McGraw Hill, USA. 2000;610-617.
Airaodion AI, Ogbuagu U, Ekenjoku JA, Ogbuagu EO, Airaodion EO. Hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic effect of some coca-cola soft drinks in Wistar rats. Acta Scientific Nutritional Health. 2019; 3(12):114-120.
Ramesh B, Saravanan R, Pugalendi KV. Effect of dietary substitution of groundnut oil on blood glucose, lipid profile, and redox status in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Yale J Biol Med. 2006;79(1):9-17.
Airaodion AI, Akinmolayan JD, Ogbuagu EO, Airaodion EO, Ogbuagu U, Awosanya OO. Effect of methanolic extract of Corchorus olitorius Leaves on hypoglycemic and hypolipidaemic activities in albino rats. Asian Plant Research Journal. 2019;2(7):1-13.
Airaodion AI, Ogbuagu EO, Airaodion EO, Ekenjoku JA, Ogbuagu U. Pharmacotherapeutic effect of methanolic extract of Telfairia occidentalis leaves on glycemic and lipidemic indexes of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. International Journal of Bio-Science and Bio-Technology. 2019; 11(8):1-17.
Airaodion AI, Ogbuagu EO, Airaodion EO, Ogbuagu U, Ekenjoku JA. Antidiabetic effect of ethanolic extract of Carica papaya leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. American Journal of Biomedical Science & Research. 2019;11(8):93-109.
Njoku OC, Airaodion AI, Ekenjoku JA, Okoroukwu VN, Ogbuagu EO, Nwachukwu N, Igwe CU. Antidiabetic potential of alkaloid extracts from Vitex doniana and Ficus thonningii leaves on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2019;2(2):1-12.
Airaodion AI, Adeniji AR, Ogbuagu EO, Ogbuagu U, Agunbiade AP. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidaemic activities of methanolic extract of Talinum triangulare leaves in Wistar rats. International Journal of Bio-Science and Bio-Technology. 2019; 11(5):1-13.
Ogbuagu EO, Airaodion AI, Ogbuagu U, Airaodion EO. Effect of methanolic extract of Vernonia amygdalina leaves on glycemic and lipidaemic indexes of Wistar rats. Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2019; 7(3):1-14.
Airaodion AI, Airaodion EO, Ogbuagu EO, Ogbuagu U, Osemwowa EU. Effect of oral intake of African locust bean on fasting blood sugar and lipid profile of albino rats. Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry. 2019;4(4):1-9.
Ogbuagu EO, Airaodion AI, Okoroukwu VN, Ogbuagu U. Hyperglycemic and hypocholesterolemic effect of monosodium glutamate in Wistar rats. International Journal of Research and Reports in Hematology. 2019;2(3):1-7.