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Background: Malaria is still a major health problem around the world especially in Africa. Report has shown major cause of morbidity and mortality amongst children population to be malaria disease with P. falciparum as a causative organism.
Aim: This study is designed to investigate the effects of ethanol leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina, (ELVA) leaf on the Brain tissue (cerebellum) of young mice inoculated with Plasmodium berghei NK 65.
Place and Duration of the Study: The study was conducted at Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, from May, 2017 to December, 2017.
Study Design: The Chloroquine-sensitive parasites P. berghei (1 x 106) intraperitoneally were used to induce malaria infection in the young mice. Twenty-five young mice were randomly divided into five groups of five mice each. Group 1 negative control (distilled water), group 2 positive control (PbNK65), groups (3, 4 and 5) were (PbNK65 + ELVA 250mg/kg), (PbNK65 + ELVA 125mg/kg), (PbNK65 + CQ 10mg/kg).
Methodology: The fresh leaves of Vernonia amgdalina plant were collected based on Ethnobotanical description and the leaves were cleaned from extraneous materials, air-dried under shade at room temperature then pounded into powder. The Powdered Vernonia amgdalina (500g) was macerated with 80 % ethanol for 72 hours with intermittent agitation by Orbital shaker at 120 revolutions per minute. The supernatant part of agitated material filtered with 15 cm whatman grade1 filter paper two times. The Parasitized erythrocytes were obtained from a donor-infected mouse by cardiac puncture in heparin and diluted with sterile blood from similar age group mice. Animals were inoculated intraperitoneally with infected blood suspension (0.2 mL) containing 106 parasitized erythrocytes lethal inoculum on day 0. At the end of the administration, mice were sacrificed and brain tissue dissected out, fixed immediately in Bouin’s fluid. Brain tissue were then passed through routine histological procedure.
Results: ELVA were found to reduce P. berghei percentage parasitaemia at 250mg/kg (2.48 ± 0.22), 125mg/kg (3.76 ± 0.35) and CQ 10mg/kg (2.64 ± 0.10) compare to the positive control (4.34±0.57) with a significant difference of (p<0.05). Body weight and temperature was sustained with no significant difference across the groups.
Conclusion: Conclusively, our findings shows that ELVA and Chloroquine clear blood parasite level with a significant difference at a dose dependent level and exalt effect on the histology of the cerebellar cortices with an optimal side effect thus, as it continues to serve as remedy with traditional medicine practitioner.
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