Hemoglobin and Nutritional Status among the Elderly in Selected Rural Area of Bangladesh
International Journal of Research and Reports in Hematology,
Aims: To assess the hemoglobin levels and nutritional status of selected elderly people.
Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study.
Place and Duration of Study: Ushayer Hatra village, Mohanpur, Rajshahi, Bangladesh and Institute of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Dhaka, over an one month period.
Methodology: Sixty elderly participants (40 males, 20 females; age range 60-95 years) were included, all being non-hospitalized, non-smoker, non-alcoholic and no one having any history of recent major blood loss. Hb analysis was done by Cyanmethemoglobin method. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight and mid upper arm circumference) were taken following standard measurement guidelines of the World Health Organization. Socio-economic data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire.
Results: The mean (±SD) Hb content was higher in males than females (11.87 (±1.50) g/dL in males and 10.16 (±1.04) g/dL in females) and the difference was highly statistically significant (P < .0005). Low Hb levels (<13 g/dL in males and <12 g/dL in females) in 67.5% male and 95.0% female participants were observed. The mean BMI of males and females were 21.76 kg/m2 and 22.58 kg/m2 respectively. Fifty percent female and 57.5% male participants were in normal body weight (BMI=18.5-24.9 kg/m2). The Mean value of MUAC were 27.13 cm in males and 25.14 cm in females. Based on MUAC, 90.0% male and 75.0% female participants had normal nutritional status (MUAC ≥ 23.5 cm in males and ≥ 22 cm in females). The association between BMI and MUAC categories of the participants were found to be statistically significant in both groups (P =.049 and .001 in male and female groups respectively).
Conclusion: Most of the study participants had low hemoglobin levels but normal nutritional status. However, further studies with considerable sample size are required to determine the prevalence of anemia and malnutrition among the elderly people of Bangladesh.
- Nutritional status
How to Cite
Salive ME, Cornoni‐Huntley J, Guralnik J M, Phillips CL, Wallace RB, Ostfeld AM, et al. Anemia and hemoglobin levels in older persons: relationship with age, gender, and health status. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1992;40(5): 489-496.
Stauder R, Amp; Thein SL. Anemia in the elderly: clinical implications and new therapeutic concepts. Haematologica. 2014;99(7):1127–1130.
Hemoglobin level. Nursing Critical Care. 2020;15(4):34–35.
Hickson M. Malnutrition and ageing. Postgraduate Medical Journal. 2006;82 (963):2-8.
Ferdous T, Kabir ZN, Wahlin Å, Streatfield K, Cederholm T. The multidimensional background of malnutrition among rural older individuals in Bangladesh–a challenge for the Millennium Development Goal. Public health nutrition. 2009;12(12): 2270-2278.
Gibson RS. Principles of nutritional assessment. Oxford university press, USA; 2005.
Ahmed F, Khan MR, Shaheen N, Ahmed KMU, Hasan A, Chowdhury I. et al. Anemia and iron deficiency in rural Bangladeshi pregnant women living in areas of high and low iron in groundwater. Nutrition. 2018;51:46-52.
Choudhury SK, Ahmed S, Hossain IA. Status of iron deficiency anemia among Bangladeshi children: Urban and rural settings. Acta Scientific Paediatrics. 2019;2(8):08–12.
Shill KB, Karmakar P, Kibria MG, Das A, Rahman MA, Hossain MS, Sattar MM. Prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia among university students in Noakhali region, Bangladesh. Journal of health, population, and nutrition. 2014;32(1):103–110.
Ahmed F, Khan MR, Islam M, Kabir I, Fuchs GJ. Anaemia and iron deficiency among adolescent schoolgirls in peri-urban Bangladesh. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2000;54(9):678–683.
Bangladesh - Total population aged 60 years and over. Retrieved from knoema; 2020.
Zwart A, Van Assendelft OW, Bull BS, England, JM, Lewis SM, et al. Recommendations for reference method for haemoglobinometry in human blood (ICSH standard 1995) and specifications for international haemiglobinocyanide standard (4th edition). Journal of clinical pathology. 1996;49(4):271–274.
Physical status: the use and interpretation of anthropometry. Report of a WHO Expert Committee. World Health Organization technical report series. 1995;854:1–452.
Anía Lafuente BJ, Fernández-Burriel Tercero M, Suárez Almenara JL, Betancort Mastrángelo CC, Guerra Hernández L. Anemia e incapacidad funcional al ingreso en una residencia geriátrica [Anemia and functional incapacity at admission to a geriatric home]. Anales de medicina interna (Madrid, Spain. 2001;198418(1):9–12.
Anía BJ, Suman VJ, Fairbanks VF, Rademacher DM, III LJM. Incidence of anemia in older people: an epidemiologic study in a well defined population. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1997;45(7):825-831.
Agarwalla R, Saikia AM, Parashar M, Pathak R, Islam F. Assessment of prevalence of anemia in and its correlates among community-dwelling elderly of Assam, India: A cross-sectional study. International Journal of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases. 2016;6(1):23-27.
Gariballa SE. Nutritional support in elderly patients. The Journal of nutrition, health & aging. 2000;4(1):25-27.
Chandra RK. Nutrition and the immune system from birth to old age. European journal of clinical nutrition. 2002;56(3):S73-S76. Available:https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601492
Alam MR, Karmokar S, Reza S, Kabir M. R, Ghosh S, Al Mamun MA. Geriatric malnutrition and depression: evidence from elderly home care population in Bangladesh. Preventive Medicine Reports. 2021;101478.
Abstract View: 124 times
PDF Download: 83 times