Aplastic Anaemia in Uyo, South-South Nigeria: A Review of Cases in a Tertiary Hospital
International Journal of Research and Reports in Hematology,
Background: Aplastic anaemia (AA) is an uncommon condition characterized by pancytopaenia and loss of haemopoietic stem and progenitor cells in the bone marrow. Without treatment, it is inexorably fatal. However with the availability of current definitive treatment options, patients’ clinical outcome is improving globally.
Objective: To determine the prevalence and outcome of aplastic anaemia in children and adults, over a five-year period, at University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (UUTH), Uyo, Nigeria.
Methods: This was a prospective study. We reviewed the cases of acquired aplastic anaemia managed in our hospital over a period of five years. Data analysis was done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23.
Results: A total of twelve cases were treated for aplastic anaemia during the period under review, giving an annual incidence of 2.4 cases per year. The ages of the patients ranged from 12 to 56 years (mean 27.8 12.3 years) with a male to female ratio of 2.1. At presentation, they had a haemotocrit of 14.583.11, white cell count of 2.380.44, absolute neutrophil count of 0.300.17, platelet count of 18.426.35, reticulocyte count of 0.930.67. Nine (75%) patients had severe AA while three (25%) patients had very severe AA at diagnosis. Management consisted of transfusion support with unbanked packed red cells and platelet concentrate, antibiotics, antifungal and antiviral agents, cyclosporin and methylprednisolone. The patients were all blood transfusion dependent. None of the patients benefited from bone marrow transplantation and anti-thymocyte globulin. The mean survival was 10.582.19 months with a mortality rate of 0.24%.
Conclusion: There is compelling need for the Federal Government to ensure that bone marrow/stem cell transplantation centres are available and accessible nationwide, and to make drugs such as cyclosporin and anti-thymocyte globulin affordable or free to reduce the high mortality associated with the condition.
- Aplastic anaemia
- anti-thymocyte globulin
- bone marrow transplantation
How to Cite
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