International Journal of Research and Reports in Hematology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International&nbsp;Journal of Research and Reports in Hematology</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish&nbsp;high-quality&nbsp;papers (<a href="/index.php/IJR2H/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of&nbsp;‘Hematology’. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> International Journal of Research and Reports in Hematology en-US International Journal of Research and Reports in Hematology Malaria Epidemiology: Specific Vulnerable Group in the Population <p>Malaria is a potentially fatal vector borne disease caused by the blood protozoan, <em>Plasmodium</em> spp. The number of species of <em>Plasmodium</em> spp continues to grow; even nowadays there is zoonosis based species that infect human. Morbidity and mortality still difficult to control, with sub Sahara Africa and south East Asia still the epicentrum of persistent transmission. Human behavior is one of the predisposing factors and actually there is a specific vulnerable group in the Population. It consists of pregnant women, children (especially under five years old) and travellers. They are at risk and very vulnerable with separated specific reason. There is no single action can be successfully applicable for them, because preventive approach must be conducted based on each group specific characteristics. In order to prevent the spread of transmission, active surveillance is one of the tools used. Preventive action conducted tailor made based on each specific group with adjustment when applicable in different region. Lesson learned from the effort to tackle malaria so far and to try to adjust it into specific vulnerable population and future direction being made in order to eliminate malaria and to create world free malaria.</p> Forman Erwin Siagian ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-05 2020-11-05 41 52 ABH Substances Secretion Status, ABO & Rhesus Blood Groups Typing and P24 Antigen Screening in HIV 1 and 2 Screened Antibody-negative Apparently Healthy Prospective Blood Donors in Calabar, Nigeria <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To investigate ABH Secretion status, ABO/ Rhesus blood groups and P24 antigen in 400 HIV screened antibody-negative apparently healthy prospective blood donors aged above 20 years recruited within Calabar, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> experimental, work carried out in the Haematology &amp; Blood&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Transfusion Unit, Department of Medical Lab Science,University of Calabar Nigeria between December 2009 and December 2010.</p> <p><strong>Methods and Materials: </strong>About 5ml of blood and 3ml of saliva samples were collected by standard procedures from 400 consented selected subjects prior to&nbsp; selection and sera were serologically screened for HIV 1&amp; 2 antibodies using Stat Pak , Determine and Unigold&nbsp; test Kits ,while HIV 1 &amp; 2 antigens were screened&nbsp; using&nbsp;&nbsp; HIV1 and 2 P24 antigens Combi&nbsp; test Kit. Saliva samples analysed for ABH secretor status using BIOTECH Anti-H reagent.&nbsp; ABO/Rhesus blood groups typing were done using blood grouping Anti -sera (A, B, AB, &amp; D) reagents and known red blood cells.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Only 10 samples (02.5 %) reacted positively to the HIV antibody screening panel with two samples (0.2%) out of the 10 samples reacted positive to HIV P24 antigens screening kit. About 11 samples (2.82%) from the tested HIV antibody-negative samples reacted positively to HIV P24 antigens screening kit with 13 positive samples (3.25%).&nbsp; 317 samples (79.25%) were ABH Substance secretors and 83 samples (20.75%) were non-secretors. 4 samples (1%) that were HIV P24 positive were also positive for non-secretor while 9 samples (2.25%) that were positive to P24 antigen screening test were also secretor.</p> <p>The order positive results of P24 antigens screening amongst&nbsp; ABO/Rhesus blood groups&nbsp; positive samples were 2(.5%) for A+ , 4(1%)for B+, 7(1.75%) for O+. A significant statistical difference exists between HIV Antibody and HIV P24 antigen tests&nbsp; (P&lt;0.5). Chi-Square X<sup>2</sup> test shows positive relationship between HIV P24 antigen screening, secretor status, ABO and Rhesus typing results (P&lt;0.5).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> ABH Substance secretors were less susceptible to HIV 1 and 2 P24 antigens screened positive test than ABH Substance non-secretors. Blood group O<sup>+</sup>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; subjects are predisposed to HIV 1 and 2 P 24 antigens screened positive test than A<sup>+</sup> ,B+, AB+, and Rhesus D negative subjects . The risk of infected HIV antibody-negative blood donors has been implicated with a prevalence rate of 3.3%.</p> Forwah Jacques Ndeh Enosakhare A. Asemota Dorathy Chioma Okpokam Immaculate I. Ekeagba ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-02 2020-11-02 1 25 Factors Contributing to Anaemia in Children under Five Years in the Ga East Municipality, Ghana <p>Anaemia is a significant public health issue globally with extreme health consequences. More than two (2) billion individuals have been infected worldwide. A cross-sectional study design was used in this study. The study population included all mothers with children under- five years of age and are residents in the selected communities. A sample size of 282 mothers with children under five years was selected. Multistage sampling technique was used in selecting the sample. The multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the influence of demographic factors on knowledge and prevalence of anaemia. All significant associations and influence were determined at a 0.05 level of significance. The prevalence of anaemia in children was found as 47.9% (95%CI: 42%-54%). Also, family history of anaemia was 49.7% of the respondents. Bivariate analysis showed a significant association among almost all the variables and the anaemia condition in children except for the mother’s age (p=0.486), the number of children (p=0.60) and delivery status (p=0.271). Factors that were statistically significant were mother’s education, mother’s occupation, family type and family income (p&lt;0.001). Again, other factors such as father’s occupation and religious affiliation also had a p-value of &lt;0.01. Child’s birth weight was also significant with p-value=0. 037. It was noted that the high awareness of childhood anaemia among caregivers does not necessarily translate to high knowledge levels. More than half of the participants had poor knowledge on the signs and symptoms, complications and management of childhood anaemia.</p> Lucy Ofori Stephen Manortey Oscar Vetsi Cynthia Nartey Henry Okorie Ugorji ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-17 2020-11-17 26 40 Prevalence of Malaria amongst Pregnant Women Attending Comprehensive Health Centre Dutsin-Ma Local Government Area, Katsina State, Nigeria <p><strong>Aim</strong><strong>: </strong>The aim of this study is to evaluate the epidemiology and burden of malaria amongst pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Comprehensive Health Center, Dutsin-ma, (CHCDTM) Katsina state, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>This study was designed to assess the epidemiology and burden of malaria amongst pregnant women, a total of 150 pregnant women were randomly selected between the active rainfall season to the early winter period (June and December) 2019. The sample population was selected irrespective of age, educational background and occupation, cultural and religious affiliation.</p> <p><strong>Palce and Duration of Study</strong><strong>:</strong> The study was was carried out at Comprehensive Health Center Dutsin-Ma (CHCDTM), within a duration of six (6) months.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>:</strong> Blood samples were aseptically collected into ethylene-diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) bottles and each blood sample was analyzed for malaria parasite. All specimens were analyzed within one hour of collection. Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films were performed, the average of ten views of a slide were counted and used for the determination&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; of parasite density. The Giemsa stain was carried out using standard quality control procedure as described [8].</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The result from the study shows that 108 (72%) were found to be infected with malaria. Malaria infection among age groups 25-29 years was highest with frequency of 39(36.1%) and lowest 1(0.9%) among age group 15-19 years. Respondents in their second trimester had the highest prevalence 87(80.5%) with least prevalence in first trimester 9(6%). Multigravida had the highest infection rate 63(58.3%) while secundigravida had the least prevalence 16(14.8%). There is a significant difference in parasite burden in relation to gravidity (p &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>:</strong> Conclusively the burden of malaria amongst pregnant women attending CHCDTM is significant across the various examined dependent variables which implies that malaria remains one of the highest prevalent disease facing pregnant women.</p> M. S. Abdullahi M. A. Abdulazeez L. Mudassir A. Aminu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-26 2020-12-26 53 59 Weight Gain Reduction and Hypoglycemic Effects of Xylopia aethiopica Fruit Extract on Wistar Rats <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study is aimed at determining the effect of <em>Xylopia aethiopica</em> fruit on weight gain and blood sugar level of Wistar rats.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The fruits of <em>Xylopia aethiopica</em> were obtained from new market in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria and were authenticated. They were air-dried and extracted using Soxhlet apparatus and ethanol as solvent. The median lethal dose (LD<sub>50</sub>) of the extract was determined using standard method. Thirty Wistar rats were used for this study. They were acclimatized for seven days, weighed and divided into five groups of six rats each. Animals in group A were administered 129.62 mg/kg body weight (10% of LD<sub>50</sub>) of <em>X. aethiopica</em> fruit extract, those in group B were administered 259.23 mg/kg body weight (20% of LD<sub>50</sub>) of <em>X. aethiopica</em> fruit extract, those in group C were administered 388.85 mg/kg body weight (30% of LD<sub>50</sub>) of <em>X. aethiopica</em> fruit extract, those in group D were administered 518.46 mg/kg body weight (40% of LD<sub>50</sub>) of <em>X. aethiopica</em> fruit extract, while those in group E (control) received normal feeds and water only. The administration was done once daily for 28 days via oral route. At the end of 28 days treatment, animals were weighed and weights recorded, and were sacrificed under ether anaesthesia after an overnight fast. Organs were harvested and weighed. Blood glucose level was determined using glucometer.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The physical signs of toxicity observed in the animals included excitation, paw licking, increased respiratory rate, decreased motor activity, gasping and coma which was followed by death. The extract was observed to reduce weight gained by animals when compared with those in the control group at P&lt;0.05. Similarly, a significant reduction was observed in the blood sugar level of animals administered extract of <em>X. aethiopica</em> fruit when compared with those in the control group. This reduction was dose-dependent.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The result of this study revealed that <em>X. aethiopica </em>fruit possesses hypoglycemic potential but highly toxic at high dosage.</p> Emmanuel O. Ogbuagu Ifeoma N. Nweke Prince C. Unekwe Augustine I. Airaodion Uloaku Ogbuagu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-04 2021-01-04 60 68