International Journal of Research and Reports in Hematology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International&nbsp;Journal of Research and Reports in Hematology</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish&nbsp;high-quality&nbsp;papers (<a href="/index.php/IJR2H/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of&nbsp;‘Hematology’. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> International Journal of Research and Reports in Hematology en-US International Journal of Research and Reports in Hematology Histological Study of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Vernonia amgydalina in Cerebellum of Young Mice Malaria Model <p><strong>Background: </strong>Malaria is still a major health problem around the world especially in Africa. Report has shown major cause of morbidity and mortality amongst children population to be malaria disease with <em>P. falciparum </em>as a causative organism.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>This study is designed to investigate the effects of ethanol leaf extract of <em>Vernonia amygdalina</em>, (ELVA) leaf on the Brain tissue (cerebellum) of young mice inoculated with <em>Plasmodium berghei </em>NK 65.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of the Study: </strong>The study was conducted at Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, from May, 2017 to December, 2017.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>The Chloroquine-sensitive parasites <em>P. berghei </em>(1 x 10<sup>6</sup>) intraperitoneally were used to induce malaria infection in the young mice. Twenty-five young mice were randomly divided into five groups of five mice each. Group 1 negative control (distilled water), group 2 positive control (<em>Pb</em>NK65), groups (3, 4 and 5) were (<em>Pb</em>NK65 + ELVA 250mg/kg), (<em>Pb</em>NK65 + ELVA 125mg/kg), (<em>Pb</em>NK65 + CQ 10mg/kg).</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The fresh leaves of <em>Vernonia amgdalina </em>plant were collected based on Ethnobotanical description and the leaves were cleaned from extraneous materials, air-dried under shade at room temperature then pounded into powder. The Powdered <em>Vernonia amgdalina </em>(500g) was macerated with 80 % ethanol for 72 hours with intermittent agitation by Orbital shaker at 120 revolutions per minute. The supernatant part of agitated material filtered with 15 cm whatman grade1 filter paper two times. The Parasitized erythrocytes were obtained from a donor-infected mouse by cardiac puncture in heparin and diluted with sterile blood from similar age group mice. Animals were inoculated intraperitoneally with infected blood suspension (0.2 mL) containing 10<sup>6</sup> parasitized erythrocytes lethal inoculum on day 0. At the end of the administration, mice were sacrificed and brain tissue dissected out, fixed immediately in Bouin’s fluid. Brain tissue were then passed through routine histological procedure.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>ELVA were found to reduce <em>P. berghei </em>percentage parasitaemia at 250mg/kg (2.48 ± 0.22), 125mg/kg (3.76 ± 0.35) and CQ 10mg/kg (2.64 ± 0.10) compare to the positive control (4.34±0.57) with a significant difference of (p&lt;0.05). Body weight and temperature was sustained with no significant difference across the groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Conclusively, our findings shows that ELVA and Chloroquine clear blood parasite level with a significant difference at a dose dependent level and exalt effect on the histology of the cerebellar cortices with an optimal side effect thus, as it continues to serve as remedy with traditional medicine practitioner.</p> M. A. Abdulazeez S. S. Adebisi S. A. Musa M. S. Abdullahi L. Mudassir ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-02-23 2021-02-23 20 29 Effect of Bambara Nut Consumption on Blood Glucose Level and Lipid Profile of Wistar Rats <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study sought to investigate the effect of Bambara nut consumption on blood glucose level and lipid profile of Wistar rats.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The Songkhla 1 variety (red seed coat) of Bambara nuts were locally sourced from Obinze area of Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. The seeds were peeled and ground to a fine powder using a coffee grinder and extracted using soxhlet apparatus and methanol as the solvent. Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats were acclimatized for seven days during which they were fed <em>ad </em><em>libitum</em> with standard feed and drinking water. They were randomly divided into four groups of six rats each. Rats in group A were administered distilled water while those in groups B, C and D were administered 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of Bambara nut extract 12 hourly for twenty-one days <em>via</em> oral route of administration. At the end of 21 days of treatment, animals were sacrificed under diethyl ether as anaesthesia and blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture. Blood glucose level and lipid profile were determined using standard methods.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Bambara nut was observed to reduce weight gain and blood glucose level of treated animals when compared with those in the control group. The lipid profile was favourably regulated when animals treated with Bambara nut were compared with those in the control group. The effect of Bambara nut on measured parameters was observed to be dose dependent.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The result of this study revealed that Bambara nut consumption is of significant health benefit as far as hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia is concerned. It could also be exceedingly helpful in the control of diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases arising from hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. This pharmacological study is a useful tool for further drug development from the natural plant products.</p> Anthony U. Megwas Patricia N. Akunne Nathaniel O. Oladosu Oladeji J. Alabi Onyinyechi C. Njoku Augustine I. Airaodion ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-18 2021-03-18 30 41 Influence of Age Category and Malaria Type on Some Haematological, VWF, ADAMTS13, L-arg, D2D, FBG, FVIII and Coagulatory Parameters of Malaria Infected Paediatric Subjects in Rivers State, Nigeria <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The aim of the study was to assess the influence of age category and malaria type on haematological and haemostatic parameters in malaria infected children resident in Rivers State, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong>&nbsp; The study was cross-sectional observational study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State, Nigeria, between the month of March and August 2020.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A total of 822 pediatrics (0-16 years), were randomly selected for this study after due parental consent. 5ml of venous blood was collected from each subject: 1ml was dispensed into paediatric EDTA (for haematologic and parasite density) and 4ml into sodium citrate bottle for L-arginine assay by ELISA-method, while Full blood count was determined using haematological auto-analyser, Mindray BC-6800. Malaria density was determined by microscopic method using thick and thin Giemsa stained blood smears. Level of significance was set at P&lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results showed that there were significant (<em>p&lt;.001)</em> decreased in WBC &amp; NEU in neonate and adolescent and increased in children when compared with the control subjects of uncomplicated and complicated malaria. EOS was observed to have a significant (p&lt; 0.0065) increased in the age categories; (neonates, children and adolescent) however complicated malaria subjects were observed to have a significant (p&lt;.05) decreased EOS when compared with the uncomplicated malaria. In addition, there was no significant (p&gt;0.05) different in the mean PT, PTT, INR, ADAMT13, and FViii in the three age categories. However, FBG, VWF and D2D were observed to be significantly (<em>p&lt;.05</em>), (<em>p&lt;.05)</em>, (<em>p&lt;.001)</em> increased in the age categories being highest in children.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In conclusion, haematological parameters decreased as malaria got complicated in neonates, increased in children, while haemostatic parameters such as VWF, FBG and D2D increased in the three age categories being highest in children.</p> S. O. Akwuebu B. S. Mbeera N. C. Ibeh E. M. Eze Z. A. Jeremiah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-12 2021-04-12 42 52 Assessment of Some Haemostatic Parameters in Women with Spontaneous Abortion Attending Antenatal Clinics in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State <p><strong>Aim: </strong>This study was aimed at assessing some haemostatic parameters of women with spontaneous abortion attending antenatal clinics in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State.</p> <p><strong>Study design:</strong>&nbsp; This study is a crossectional study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> This study was carried out in Federal Medical Centre (FMC) and Diete Koki Hospital, all in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria, between October 2018 and July 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A total of eighty-eight (88) subjects (48 women with spontaneous abortion and 40 women with normal pregnancy) were enrolled in this study. Ten (10) mls of blood sample was obtained from each participant. Platelet count and mean platelet volume were determined using the Mindray BC-5300 (Shenzhen Mindray Bio-Medical Electronics Co. Ltd China) Auto haematology analyzer. Prothrombin time was determined using Erba Actime <em>invitro</em> diagnostic reagent kits, activated partial thromboplastin time was determined using Erba Protime and Erba Calcium invitro diagnostic reagent kits, Fibrinogen was determined using Erba <em>invitro </em>reagents.&nbsp; Thrombin and antithrombin&nbsp; were determined using Erba Chrom kits while tissue plasminogen activator and tissue Plasminogen were determined using ELISA assay kits (Elabscience Biotech. Co. Ltd China). Data analysis was done using GraphPad Prism version 5.1 and p-values &lt; 0.05 were considered statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Results showed a statistically significant decrease in aPTT (27.42 ± 7.827s versus 22. 60 ± 7.038s) (<em>P=.003</em>) among test and control groups irrespective of trimester, mean platelet volume (MPV) (10.76fl ± 1.89 versus 8.89 ± 1.00fl) (<em>P =.004</em>) among test and control groups in the first trimester. A significant decrease in activated partial thromboplastin time (28.44 ± 8.64s versus 21.82 ± 6.87s) (<em>P=.0019</em>) and antithrombin (32.57 ± 10.83% versus 16.34 ± 6.20%) (<em>P =.001</em>) among test and controls in the second trimester were observed. Also, a statistical decrease were observed in aPTT (32.00 ± 6.12s versus 20.36 ± 5.853s) (<em>P= .0027</em>) and (31.14 ± 9.083s versus 21.57 ± 9.343s) (<em>P =.036</em>) in the second trimester within the age ranges 18-23years and 31-36years. A significant negative correlations were observed in the test subjects for the first trimester between tissue in plasminogen and age mean platelet volume and platelet count and mean platelet volume and tissue plasminogen activator; second trimester test subjects between Platelet and age), antithrombin and platelet.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In conclusion, the findings suggest that the haemostatic parameters may contribute to complications in pregnancy.</p> Etulan M. Marcus Stella U. Ken-Ezihuo Evelyn M. Eze ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-12 2021-04-12 53 66 COVID-19 Pandemic: Laboratory Diagnostic Methods and Related Biosafety Regulations <p>The repeated spread, loss of lives and melt down of the global economy as a result of the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), is posing a great challenge to the global health and economy. As of the first week of September, the disease has affected about 216 countries with nearly 900,000 deaths. In Nigeria, the total deaths recorded have exceed one thousand. The rapid, early and accurate laboratory diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 is one of the key roles in fighting against the disease. There is the problem of the insufficient sensitivity of a single means to detect the virus and the co-infection with other viruses, creating chance for a high false-negative result. In addition to molecular tests (which are the basis for confirmation of SARS-CoV-2) and Genomic sequencing, serological tests can be used as an additional test in other to boycott false negative results, and play an increasingly important role in understanding the epidemiology of the virus, identify people at risk of contracting the disease, and patients at risk for severe complications. This review will discuss the different laboratory diagnostic methods for SARS-CoV-2, the sample of choice and related biosafety regulations.</p> Isma’il Rabi’u Sheriffdeen Bale Issa Muhyiddeen Muazu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-02-11 2021-02-11 1 19