International Journal of Research and Reports in Hematology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International&nbsp;Journal of Research and Reports in Hematology</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish&nbsp;high-quality&nbsp;papers (<a href="/index.php/IJR2H/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of&nbsp;‘Hematology’. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> International Journal of Research and Reports in Hematology en-US International Journal of Research and Reports in Hematology A Literature Review and Case Report of Concurrent Myelodysplastic Syndrome and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia <p>Coexistence of B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (B-CLL) and Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) is rare condition(1). A 76-year-old female patient presented with pruritic and hyperemic rashes in her whole body, was diagnosed with MDS concurrent with B-CLL as a result of determined leucocytosis(White blood cell count: 52.200/mm<sup>3</sup>; 57% lymphocytosis, 33% monocytosis) in the complete blood count. She also had a history of receiving chemoradiotherapy for cervical cancer in her past medical history. A biopsy was performed from her rashes and histopathological findings showed chronic lymphocytic vasculitis. Cases of lymphocytic cutaneous vasculitis associated with hematological malignancies have been reported. Coexistence of B-CLL and MDS is an independent entity from the management of CLL, but receiving chemotherapy for a carcinoma is a risk factor for developing MDS. So, we aimed to present a case, who has a risk factor for developing MDS and skin involvement of B-CLL together, with literature and emphasize that two different hematological malignancies that develop simultaneously or at different times in the same patient may coexist. This rare condition should be considered in lymphocytosis and blast association.</p> Muzeyyen Ak Aslaner Birsen Sahip ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-28 2021-05-28 21 26 Early T-cell Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia- A Neoplasm with Dual Lineage Phenotype- Case Study of Two Patients <p>Early T-cell Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ETP-ALL) is a subtype of T-ALL/LBL which is derived from thymic cells at the early T-cell precursor (ETP) differentiation stage that have the potential to differentiate into multiple lineages, including lymphoid and myeloid. ETP-ALL accounts for 15% of childhood T-ALL and 10-30% of adult T-ALL. It has characteristic&nbsp; immunophenotypic expression&nbsp; of CD7, a lack of CD1a and CD8, weak expression of CD5 (with &lt;75% positive blasts), and positive expression of one or more stem cell or myeloid markers including CD117, HLADR, CD13, CD33, CD11b or CD65. We here in report two cases of ETP-ALL with brief review of literature.</p> . Surabhi A. Singh J. Singh Nigam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-07 2021-06-07 27 33 Gene Frequencies of Human Platelet Alloantigens in Major Ethnic Groups in Rivers-State, Nigeria <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The aim of this study was to evaluate gene frequencies of human platelet alloantigens among major ethnic groups in Rivers-State, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> A cross-sectional study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Rivers State University Medical Centre, Port Harcourt, Safety Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Enugu State, Justcare clinical laboratory Port Harcourt Rivers State and University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital Port Harcoourt, between October 2019 and March 2020.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The subjects consisted of apparently healthy individuals who were of Rivers State origin totaling 104 persons aged 17 to 42 years. They were under-graduate and post-graduate students of Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Five major ethnic groups were considered which included Ikwerre, Ogoni, Ijaw, Etche and Ogba. Their demographic information was collected using a sample register and a questionnaire. Samples were collected from the antecubital vein. 10ml of blood was collected, 5ml was transferred into EDTA sample bottle (Ethylene diamine tetracetic acid) while 2ml was dispensed into plain bottle and labeled accordingly. Serological testing including HIV (RVS) screening, HBsag, HCV and VDRL were all done immediately after samples were collected. The remaining sample was analyzed using genotyping of Human Platelet Antigens by High Resolution Melting Curve Analysis Polymerase Chain Reaction (HRM-PCR). The melt curve analysis was done using the MicPCR software while the frequency analysis was done using Number Cruncher Statistical Software (NCSS) Version 13. Graph Pad Prism Version 8.0.2 was used to determine the statistical significance between the various HPA genotypes and the ethnic groups and p-values of &lt;<em>.05</em> were considered to be statistically significant. Results were presented in percentages, mean+/- standard deviation and in tables</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results showed that HPA-4 and HPA-5 a/a and b/b were the highest among Etche (20.0% each), followed by HPA-2 and HPA-3 at 16% each for b/b and HPA-1 a/a and a/b had 10.0% and 6.7% respectively, and HPA-1 b/b, HPA-2 a/b and HPA-3 a/a had 3.3% respectively. The HPA pattern for Ijaw was highest at HPA-4 a/a (15.7%), followed by HPA-5 b/b (15.3%) and the least was HPA-2 b/b (11.4%). The pattern for Ikwerre was highest for HPA-5 b/b (20.0%) and least for HPA-4 b/b and HPA-2 a/a (0.8% each). The HPA pattern for Ogba was highest for HPA-5 b/b (20.0%) and least for HPA-3 a/a and HPA-2 a/a (0.0% each), while the pattern for Ogoni is highest for HPA-5 b/b (19.1%) and least for HPA-5 a/b and HPA-3 a/b (0.9%). The HPA alleles showed that HPA-1 a/b was highest. 42 (40.4%), followed by HPA-1 a/a 34 (32.7%) and HPA-1 b/b 28 (26.9%), and the least was 3% for HPA-2 a/b. The highest for HPA-2 was b/b, 60 (57.7%) and the least is a/a, 2 (1.9%), while the highest for HPA-3 was also b/b, 75 (72.1%) and the least was a/a 3 (2.9%). Also, HPA-4 a/a allele is the highest in its category, 85 (81.5%) and the least was a/b 9 (8.7%), while b/b, 102 (98.1%) was the highest for HPA-5 and there was none for a/b and a/a alleles.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The HPA alleles showed that HPA-1 a/b was highest. The highest for HPA-2 and HPA-3 was b/b. HPA-4 a/a allele was the highest in its category, while b/b was the highest for HPA-5. HPA-4 and HPA-5 a/a and b/b were the highest among Etche. The HPA pattern for Ijaw was highest at HPA-4 a/a. The pattern for Ikwerre was highest for HPA-5 b/b. The HPA pattern for Ogba was highest for HPA-5 b/b, while the pattern for Ogoni was highest for HPA-5 b/b.</p> J. E. Wenah-Emmanuel E. M. Eze E. O. Nwachuku E. Wenah Z. A. Jeremiah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-25 2021-05-25 12 20 Inflammatory, Oxidative Stress Status and Antioxidant Homeostasis in HIV-infection and Ageing are Tightly Logistic in Humans <p><strong>Aims: </strong>Inflammatory, immunological, oxidative stress status and antioxidant homeostasis in HIV-Infection and ageing were studied to determine if their relationships were logistic in humans.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> The effect of HIV disease/antiretroviral therapy on Inflammatory, immunological, oxidative stress status and antioxidant homeostasis was assessed by juxtaposition with similar indices in HIV seronegative healthy young (20-35years) adults (CTRL) and HIV seronegative elderly (65-86 years) subjects (ELD65+).</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Subjects include One hundred (100) HIV seropositive individuals, 50 on ART and 50 ART-Naive and One hundred (100) seronegative individuals comprising fifty (50) healthy younger adults and Fifty (50) elderly (<u>≥</u>65yrs) individuals attending the Federal Medical Centre Owerri between August and December 2020.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Venous blood was collected into an EDTA vacutainer and plain vacutainer plain from each participant for inflammation indices (ESR, CRP) using Westergren and Finecare CRP rapid quantitative test kit, Oxidative stress index (erythrocyte lipid peroxidation as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), antioxidant index (glutathione(reduced) using spectrometric method were determined on subjects. Enzyme-.linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine interleukin-6 (IL-6). The data generated were analysed by one-way analysis of variances (ANOVA) using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21; Relationship existing between parameters were analysed using table curve 2D (Systat USA).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were all significantly higher in seropositive young adult subjects (P&lt;0.05) than the seronegative young adult control subjects. Glutathione (GSH) was significantly reduced in the seropositive young adult subjects (P&lt;0.05) than the seronegative young adult control subjects. In all the parameters measured, Naïve and ART subjects were similar in trend to ELD65+ subjects suggesting immune ageing. The antioxidant parameter GSH had an inverse relationship with the inflammatory (ESR, CRP and IL-6) and oxidative stress (TBARS) parameters. This relationship was logistic and followed a logistic dose-response relationship and a sigmoidal association.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> We conclude that Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) are useful parameters to assess immune ageing, and are related logistically in humans.</p> Precious Nc. Alisi Zacheus A. Jeremiah Evelyn M. Eze Edna O. Ibegbulem ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-18 2021-05-18 1 11 Significance of Pain in Children with Sickle Cell Anaemia and Ischaemia-induced Cardiac Injury <p><strong>Aims: </strong>To determine the relationships between ischaemic cardiac injury (ICI) evidenced by ischaemic electrocardiogram (ECG) with raised cardiac troponin T (cTnT), pain intensity and frequency in children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA).</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Case-control.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Department of Paediatrics, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital over a 6-month period.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Children with SCA aged 4 – 17 years with vaso-occlusive painful crises (VOC) were enrolled. Cases were those with ICI while controls were those without ICI. VOC was diagnosed by history and examination with Faces Pain Scale – Revised. Electrocardiography and cTnT estimation were done. Cut-off level (97.5<sup>th</sup> percentile) of cTnT was obtained from age and sex-matched healthy children with haemoglobin genotype-AA. Serum cTnT analysis was by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Ischaemic ECG assessment was according to World Heart Federation criteria.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Fifty-six children with SCA participated among who 27(48.2%) were cases and 29(51.8%) controls. Ischaemic ECG (71.4%) and elevated cTnT (57.2%) were significantly related (<em>P</em>=.01). All cases had severe pain (<em>P</em>=.02) and accounted for &gt;50% of those with chest pain (<em>P</em>=.25). Controls had more &lt; 3 pain episodes per annum than cases while frequent VOC (≥3 pain episodes per annum) occurred more in the cases though the differences were not statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Severe pain with frequent VOC is associated with ICI even in the absence of chest pain in children with SCA. Regular electrocardiography and cTnT measurement will identify at-risk children for adequate management.</p> Nlemadim, Anthony Chibueze Okpara, Henry Chima Uzomba, Chigozie Ikechukwu Anah, Maxwell Udo Odey, Friday Akwagiobe Meremikwu, Martin Madu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-07 2021-06-07 34 42