Open Access Original Research Article

Haematological Changes in Administration of Chrysophyllum albidu Stem Extract to Wistar Rats

E. N. Ekene, O. M. Odigie

International Journal of Research and Reports in Hematology, Page 1-8

In medical practice, examination of blood for the presence of metabolites and other constituents is vital to the prediction of the physiological, nutritional and pathological status of any individual prior to prognosis. This study investigated the effect of crude n-hexane stem extract of Chrysophyllum albidum on packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin count in Albino Wistar rats. Twenty (20) Wistar rats of between 220-150g were procured and housed in well-ventilated animal House of 28 ± 2ºC, relative humidity 60-70%, for a 12hrs (light/dark cycle) duration of two weeks. They were then grouped into four (4) of five (5) rats per group. With group 1 rats fed with standard rat diet ad libitum (Control group), groups 2 - 4 were respectively fed with 200mg/kg, 300mg/kg and 400mg/kg body weights of Chrysophyllum albidum Extract. After 14 days of administration of test substance, rats were sacrificed, blood samples obtained and analysed for hematologic changes. Study found a statistically significant decrease in PCV and haemoglobin levels for group IV (high dose treated) when compared with other groups. Also, low dose treated group showed an increase in PCV values upon comparison. Study therefore (using analysis of variance, ANOVA at p < .05) established a dose-dependent change in most assayed haematological parameters. Similar but wider study on the effect of Chrysophyllum albidum on other systems is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Protective Effect of Anacardium occidentale on the Liver Enzymes of Paracetamol Induced Toxicity in Wistar Rats

E. O. Nweke, I. J. Okafor, J. K. Opara

International Journal of Research and Reports in Hematology, Page 1-6

This study investigated the effects of ethanolic extract of Anacardium occidentale on paracetamol induced liver toxicity in Wistar rats. Twenty (20) Wistar rats were randomly divided into four (4) groups of five (5) rats each. The groups were designated as follows; A, B, C and D. Group A served as the normal control and received 2ml/kg of distilled water, group B served as the paracetamol treated control and received 1000 mg/kg body weight of paracetamol only, group C received 1000 mg/kg of paracetamol then treated with 250 mg/kg bw of A. occidentale extract, group D received 1000 mg/kg bw of paracetamol then treated with 500 mg/kg of A. occidentale extract daily for 4 weeks respectively. After the last day of administration, the rats were anaesthetized by cervical dislocation and their blood samples collected for analysis. The result revealed significant decrease (P=.05) in Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the groups treated with A. occidentale compared to the paracetamol treated groups. It can be deduced that A. occidentale has the potential of protecting the liver against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity.and thus, should be recommended in the management of liver disorders.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Experience, Perception and Attitude Towards Premarital Sickle Cell Disease Screening among Students Attending Federal College of Education, Kano, Nigeria

M. A. Hussaini, A. A. Durbunde, Y. D. Jobbi, I. Y. Muhammad, A. U. Mansur, M. Umar, O. Tolulope Isaac, K. Ummulkulthum, A. Azeezat Bolanle, J. Kambai

International Journal of Research and Reports in Hematology, Page 1-12

Background: Sickle cell disease is a condition in which an individual inherit two abnormal haemoglobin genes from both parents βs/βs (HbSS) resulting in pathological state which is attributed to the sickling phenomenon, vaso-occlusion crises, infection and other complications. About 5% of the world’s population carries genes responsible for haemoglobinopathies and each year about 300 000 infants are born with major haemoglobin disorders including more than 200, 000 cases of sickle-cell disease in Africa. Sickle cell disease is a very common disorder in Nigeria with birth rate of about 1 in 50 and about 150,000 children are born annually with sickle cell anaemia in Nigeria alone. The study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitude of students attending the Federal College of Education, Kano about premarital screening for sickle cell disease.

Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted using interviewer-administered structured questionnaire among 305 students. Descriptive statistics of frequency count and percentages were used to describe the demographic data, while the non-parametric statistics of chi-square set at P = 0.05 level of significance were used to test the hypotheses that there is no significant difference in the attitude towards premarital sickle cell screening between students of different demographic backgrounds studying different programmes at Federal College of Education, Kano, Nigeria.

Results: Forty-six percent of respondents had low knowledge of sickle cell disease, and 40 percent had negative attitude towards premarital sickle cell screening. The predictors of knowledge are program of study in which students are enrolled, religion and age (each P = 0.00), while those predictors for attitude towards premarital sickle cell screening include religion, knowledge of sickle cell disease and marital status, each at P = 0.00 at 95% level of significance.

Conclusion: The students have poor knowledge and attitude towards sickle cell disease and premarital screening. The importance of health education as a keystone is necessary in improving knowledge and attitude towards premarital screening for sickle cell disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Long-Term Evaluation of Imatinib´s Effect on Bone Marrow Fibrosis in Patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

Hosny Badrawy Hamed, Asmaa Mohamed Zahran, Adel Gomaa, Noha Gaber Sayed, Ahmed Makboul

International Journal of Research and Reports in Hematology, Page 1-12

Background: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) that originates in an abnormal pluripotent stem cell [1]. At diagnosis, all cases of CML have the characteristic t(9;22) translocation that results in the Ph chromosome [2]. Marked bone marrow (BM) fibrosis at the time of diagnosis and worsening BM fibrosis while the patient is receiving therapy are markers of CML disease progression and poor prognosis [3]. A significant advance in the treatment of CML was achieved with the introduction of imatinib [4]. Imatinib has an independent anti-fibrotic effect on BM of CML patients [5].

Aim of the Study: We assessed BM fibrosis in CML patients treated with imatinib.

Patients and Methods: This retrospective study was done on 46 patients with CML from 2012 to 2014 treated with imatinib. Assessment of reticulin fibrosis in CML patients treated with imatinib was done using reticulum staining kit.

Results: Thirty-three patients (71.7%) of the 46 patients in our study showed progression of BM fibrosis after one year of treatment with imatinib.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that imatinib may be associated with progression of BM fibrosis in CML patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Chronic Administration of HRT 123 Herbal Formulation on Some Haematological Indices and Serum Biochemical Markers in Wistar Rats

Kakjing D. Falang, Bukata B. Bukar, Mary O. Uguru

International Journal of Research and Reports in Hematology, Page 1-5

Herbal preparations continue to be the mainstay of treatments for diverse medical conditions worldwide especially in sub-Saharan Africa and other resource-constrained areas. The preparations are often taken for a prolonged period due to the chronic nature of some of the medical conditions (such as cancer, HIV/AIDS) being managed. Consequently, the safety of the preparations needs to be carefully considered. One such preparation, traditionally claimed to have immune boosting potentials in patients with conditions associated with decreased immune function and in chronically ill and debilitated patients is the herbal formulation HRT 123. The study evaluated effects of chronic administration of HRT 123 aqueous extract on some haematological indices and serum biochemical markers. Five groups of six Wistar rats each were used. Group 1 was administered distilled water only. Groups 2 to 5 were administered 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively of HRT 123 aqueous extract orally for 90 days. Animals were sacrificed at the end of extract administration. The blood was analyzed for haematological indices, parameters of liver (AST, ALT, total protein and albumin) as well as kidney (sodium, potassium, chloride andcreatinine) function. There were no statistically significant changes (P> 0.05) in haematological indices as well as serum biochemical parameters and electrolytes in treated animals relative to control. These results suggest that HRT123 may not have adverse and deleterious effects on functions of organs such as the liver and kidneys when administered over a prolonged period.